Anzac Gallipoli Archaeology Database

A Guide to AGAD

The AGAD catalogue is organised by feature types documented in the JHAS surveys from 2010-2014. A list of the various feature types in the AGAD is below. Each feature is given a unique Feature ID (FID) number. Artefacts form the largest group of features in the AGAD and each artefact has an FID as well as an artefact number for cataloguing (e.g. A300).

Each feature entry includes a description, dimensions and images (photographs or maps) as well as information about its location, chronological period, survey date and associated features.

FEATURES

Table 1. AGAD Feature and Artefact types and other classifications

Feature Type

Artefact Type

Artefact Material

Period

Alcove

Artefact scatter

Ceramic

Post- 1915

Artefact

Barbed wire

Concrete

c. 1915

Boat

Brick

Glass

Pre-1915

Boundary Marker

Ceramic sherd

Leather

Cemetery

Glass sherd

Metal

Dugout

Glass (periscope)

Stone

Grave

Lithic

Textile

Monument

Metal container

Other

Pit

Metal fragment

Road

Ordnance

Strategic Position

Personal Item

Structure built

Shrapnel

Track

Tile

Terrace

Utility item

Trench

Other

Tunnel

Unknown

Water tank

Well

Other

Feature types have been categorised from what was observed in the field. Eleven feature types are c.1915 battlefield features (artefacts, boats, six types of earthworks, graves, roads, structures). Other types relate to post-1915 commemorative features, including cemeteries, monuments, park boundary markers, pathways, and tracks. A definition of each one follows below (in alphabetical order):

Artefacts: Surface finds of objects located on the battlefield. These have been surveyed in the field as point locations with the DGPS. They include either single finds, multiple finds of the same type located together (e.g., five metal fragments), or scatters of different types of artefacts. Where artefacts were found in close proximity to each other (scatters), they were documented as areas. In each case, detailed dimensions—diameter, height, length, width and/or thickness—were recorded.

Boat: The remains of a small vessel located on the waterline for transporting men and equipment over water. Documented as a point location.

Boundary Marker: Small, pyramidal survey markers, documented as point locations, which delineate the spatial extent of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission-administered area defined by the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne (see chapter 9). This comprised the JHAS research area.

Cemetery: Formal cemeteries established by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission post-1919 for Allied Soldiers, and by Turkish Authorities for the 57th Regiment Memorial. Documented as areas defined by their boundaries.

Earthworks: Each of the earthworks mentioned below were documented using the DGPS as either point locations, or in the case of trenches and terraces as linear features. The dimensions (length, width and depth) of individual earthworks were also recorded.

  • Alcove: A small niche excavated into the wall of a trench. Often found at a point where a trench changed direction, and usually located on the side away from the front line.

  • Dugout: Large pits or flat areas cut into the hillside opening from a trench. They are usually deep and wide with flat floors. Dugouts were used by soldiers for sleeping, eating and resting.

  • Pit:An isolated, rounded depression usually near a trench or tunnel, but with no evident connection thereto. Pits vary considerably in size and depth.

  • Strategic Position: Small depression or pit associated with a trench or tunnel, overlooking enemy front lines or possible enemy lines of advance. Strategic positions include machine-gun or sniper positions and lookouts.

  • Terrace: Elongated, flattened areas cut into the sides of ridges and hill slopes.

  • Trench: An open, linear depression cut into the ground surface with a uniform flat or inclined floor. Trenches were varied in character, being shallow or deep, wide or narrow, well defined or eroded and indistinct. Their alignments were most often curving, zig-zagging or sinuous. Their length was recorded using DGPS and width and depth measurements were taken.

  • Tunnels: There are different types of tunnel remains with different characteristics. Slumped or collapsed tunnels are linear depressions with undulating or pitted floors, which generally have a straight alignment. Tunnels are also characterised as a series of oval-shaped or elongated pits forming a line. Tunnel entrances were exposed openings into sub-surface cavities usually on a vertical or near-vertical slope or trench wall. Usually these openings had a curved roof and were greater in width than height. Documented as point locations for entrances and tunnel slumps (pits), and as linear extents for slumped tunnels when discernible.

Grave: A marked or formal burial located outside the established cemeteries. These include simple, sandstone grave markers for Turkish troops from c.1915, formal plaques for single burials (post-1915) and looted or exposed inhumations from 1915. Documented as point locations.

Monument: Commemorative structures erected post-1915 to memorialise particular aspects of the ANZAC – Turkish campaign or as burial monuments. Documented as point locations or as areas, depending on their size.

Road: Unsealed road constructed and used during the 1915 campaign. Documented as a linear extent.[1]

Structure Built: An architectural feature, such as a wall, floor, hearth or other building remains. These features were documented as lines, areas or points depending upon their size and extent, and length, width and height measurements were taken.

Track: A modern track built in recent times to enable access to commemorative areas of the battlefield associated with specific groups. The New Zealand Walking Track is an example. Their linear extent was documented with DGPS.

Each feature record has a core set of data fields (or attributes) that include a find location, description and dimensions, but also provide information about location, chronology and preservation. Details of how each of these fields are defined are as follows:

Location: Area or site location names are given, based on those used by the ANZAC forces in the 1915 Gallipoli campaign, as recorded by Australia’s official war historian C. E. W. Bean in his work, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, Volume I, The Story of Anzac: From the Outbreak of War to the End of First Phase of the Gallipoli Campaign (published in 1921) and Volume II, The Story of Anzac: From 4 May, 1915 to the Evacuation (published in 1924). There are links in the AGAD to site entries that give historical and archaeological information about specific places or sites within the battlefield, including Lone Pine, Quinn’s Post, Silt Spur, German Officers’ Ridge and the Knife’s Edge. Various features related to specific sites can be searched via the Location pages.

Area: This field records the military group who, during the 1915 conflict, occupied, created or used the area in which the particular feature or artefact was located. This was either ANZAC (Allied), Turkish (Ottoman) or other. Earthwork features are categorised on the basis of who occupied the area at the end of the 1915 campaign, as shown on the Şevki Paşa maps (see discussion on these maps in Sagona, A. et al. [eds.], 2016, Anzac Battlefield: A Gallipoli landscape of war and memory, pp. 77-81). The earthworks recorded at Quinn’s Post, for instance, are tagged as Anzac. The area attributed to artefacts is the same as for earthworks – it is based on the location in which the artefact was found and which force occupied that area at the end of 1915. Artefacts that pre- or post-date the 1915 conflict are given an Area category of ‘Other’ unless they are positively known. Post-1915 cemeteries, monuments, boundary markers and roads etc. were given a nationality based on the group to whom the monument or cemetery is dedicated, or by whom it was constructed. Pre-1915 features and artefacts are designated ‘Other’.

Deployed By: This field denotes the military group who used, created or supplied a particular feature or artefact during the 1915 conflict. This does not indicate the place of manufacture or country origin of an artefact but reflects the military force who used the object or feature. For example, an expended Mauser bullet found in an Anzac trench at No.1 Outpost would have a ‘Deployed By’ category of ‘Turkish’, whereas it would have an ‘Area’ categorisation of ‘Anzac’. Another example is that German manufactured grenade fragments are categorised as ‘Turkish’ because it was the Ottoman forces who supplied and used these grenades.

Period: A chronological period is given to indicate the time when the feature or artefact was used or made. Since there the material culture recorded during the battlefield surveys was restricted in its chronological spread (the bulk can be assigned to 1915), the divisions given are either pre-1915, c. 1915 or post-1915.

Preservation: A rating of the state of preservation was given to each feature (excluding artefacts): excellent, good, fair or poor.


[1] Modern sealed and unsealed roads and car parks providing vehicle access within the GPPP were also surveyed and included within the research GIS.

The data and images in the AGAD database are copyright © The department of Veterans' Affairs, Canberra, and are available under a CC-BY 4.0 licence [more information]

Photographs are the work of Antonio Sagona.